A Galiliean Shaman Speaks His Native Tongue

The Return Project:

Recently, Judith and I visited about the subject of “Who Is Jesus?” over breakfast , and she said,”When I met you in 1973, you were already talking excitedly about Jesus and Buddha as shamans. You claimed that the church and its scholars had missed perhaps the essential point of Jesus’ life and times, namely, that he was a basically a man of nature. That trumps everything else, you said over and over.”

While Judith’s memory is accurate, for the next four decades I diverted my interest to psychology and the practice of psychotherapy, to an indigenous apprenticeship, and, eventually, to the science of fields. I had little time to pursue my intuition about Jesus. I returned to the intuition briefly with two of my books, but, once again, I did not pursue the question in any systematic way.

Recently, I suggested to Lillie Rowden that she add a chapter to her new book, one that concentrates on Jesus, the Shaman, as a link to other indigenous shamans. That conversation lead me to the axial work, THE LIFE OF A GALILIEAN SHAMAN: Jesus of Nazareth in Anthropological-Historical Perspective by Pieter F. Craffert. As I study this paradigm-shifting book, I am deeply gratified that a scholar of Craffert’s stature can explore this domain in such thoroughly researched detail, especially since my life trajectory took me in other directions. His research turns our notion of the man Jesus in an entirely different direction, beyond both conservative and liberal pursuits.

After forty years I am more and more certain that the historical figure of Jesus is best understood as a shaman, especially since Craffert and others have come to a similar conclusion from lifetimes of research. (I am not so sure about Buddha, but that can wait.) I did take my church history professor’s advice to explore the canonical gospels by studying koine Greek along the way, the street language of the oldest narratives. It helped in my quest to discover the man Jesus, but I sensed that even these ancient Greek texts missed much since Jesus spoke Aramaic while the gospels writers recorded their impressions of him in Greek, a language he didn’t choose to speak. It is likely that Jesus knew Greek, religious Hebrew, and perhaps even Roman Latin, but it is certain that he chose to communicate almost exclusively in a distinctively Galilean dialect of Aramaic, an earthy language rich in local idioms.

This point is important because Aramaic, like many tribal languages, is much more connected to Nature than Greek. Take the first line of the so-called “Lord’s Prayer.”
Jesus speaks, addressing the Sacred in his native language, offering one of his most significant teachings:
Abwoon d’bwashmaya.

What does the phrase mean? The King James Version translators did not know Aramaic, or even that Jesus spoke this beautiful language. They labored as best they could from koine Greek sources and gave us this poetic translation:
Our Father, who art in heaven…

A recent Aramaic translation of this same phrase is startlingly different:
O Birther, Source, Mother-Father of the Universe.

The entire history of Christianity, perhaps even Western Civilization, turns on that one erroneous report of Jesus’ teachings. Even modern translations such as the RSV don’t seem to be aware of Jesus’ Aramaic tongue and its connection to the Mother Tongue. One Aramaic scholar I consulted stated that abwoon is a word that also describes the source of spring waters in landscapes where local Aramaic is spoken even today. When Jesus chose to instruct his apprentices in his model of praying, he uttered this word, abwoon, closely connected to source and water.It is a word that implies both the masculine and feminine.

Is it possible that Jesus knew to integrate earth and sky, masculine and feminine, immanence and transcendence? Is it possible that Jesus was a speaker of the Mother Tongue? Perhaps, I read too much of my own perspective back into the man, Jesus. It is easy to do. But my curiosity pushes me to look into the Jesus’ narratives to explore how they relate to cross-cultural shamans in my next post. See you there.

18 thoughts on “A Galiliean Shaman Speaks His Native Tongue”

  1. I got my copy of “The Life of a Galilean Shaman” last week. Fascinating stuff I can tell, even though I have only pierced its first chapters and, of course, scanned all chapters.

    I am trying to get a handle on how we are defining Shaman. Pieter Graffert points to the many parallels of a shaman’s awakening, Sidi’s and lifestyle. But he does not appear to point to the core struggle I mentioned earlier in MavcEivelly’s “Shape of Ancient Thought”; i.e. how the establishment of Kings directly contrasted with the freedom and even iconoclasm that inevitably comes with Shamanism.

    Gilgamesh, for instance, could also be called a shaman under Graffert’s qualifications. But it is only logical, as MacEvilly points out, that the King takes on these qualities in order to control any iconaclasm that might arise within the mystical ranks within his kingdom.

    This kind of control may not have been important to the pre-king hebrews. But once they got a king, they went the way as everyone else in the region did. In 1 Samuel 10:-18 the prophet Samuel warns the people that a king will take and control things (take is mentioned 6 times) and the people will become servants (this includes iconoclasts and free wheeling shamans who disagree with the state appointed priests).

    This kind of theological control is pretty clear during the 70 years captivity in babylon. Confronted by the fact that the Babylonian gods may have beat Yahweh in the heavenly realms, the Hebrews had to look closely at both their idea of how Yahweh-God acts and what salvation/safety means in the earthly realm. The first thing they noticed was that in the babylonian creation story, The top Babylonian god Marduk had to do battle with the sea monster (another older god) Tiamat. Either one could have won this battle. In Shamanic fashion, marduk uses his control over the winds to kill Tiamat.

    The Hebrews reduced all sense of shamanic caprice and uncertainty about how the world was created. For them, Yahweh did not do battle with anything. He simply spoke (a subtler form of using the winds) creation into existance and in doing so the great “tehom” (chaotic waters) was quelled. The Hebrew scholars are making a joke of the “tiamat”, shoing that the tehom was also a creation of Yahweh-God and completely under His control.

    This kind of theme is very important if we are going to define Shamanism with specific reference to a Hebrew community.. Does the shaman have an ability to go directly to the “source” outside of the constructs of the priesthood? Is he, naturally endowed with an iconoclasm that can set him against the power of a Hebrew King Herod? Who will Yahweh-God back in a duel between the proouncement from a Shaman and the pronouncements of an authorized high priest (Aristobulus III – Herod’s brother in law)?

  2. I could not get past this question all day today after reading these 13 posts. I would really like to know how we are defining shaman.

    I breezed through a few key pages (259-287) of Rice University philologist Tomas McEvilley’s “The shape of Ancient Thought: today just to brush up on the (Bronze/Iron Age) Mesopotamian backdrop regarding Shamans, kings and priests. The agricultural-based cities like Sumer and Babylon used several methods of mitigating the remaining shamanic influences within their territories.

    In the Gilgamesh epic Atrahasis (the Father Shaman) refuses to initiate Utnapishtim. This part of the story along with the story of how Shaman Etana could not make the flight to heaven under his own power, McEvilley’s states that the old Shamanic journey has been turned over to the service of the State – the continuation of the royal dynastic power being the issue. Thus, Adapa, Master of the Wind and Ointments, initiate of Enki, knows the heart of Heaven and Earth (shamanic language), and instills the knowledge within priestly rites. There are a whole series of stories where heroes refuse to take the food of Life (Adapa – Gilgames / Uttanka – Mahabbarata) and later we are taught that the gods are withholding both magical plants and flight from humans even though in earlier days it was available to folks like Utnapishtim. Also notice that Gilgamesh loses his drum.

    The Sumerians also outlawed non priestly sorcerers. The king begins taking on the great dreamer’s post as well as the fertility magic – becoming the diety during new year ceremonies. He also has in his posession the lilissu drum (of Anu) and takes on the symbol of the Wild Bull. The king also becomes the scapegoat, charged before the gods with the sins of the community. The priests take on the rituals and teach that only they get to experience transcendence using secret teachings.
    So, as far as I can see, by the Iron Age, shamans were unemployed and forced hermits. But the stories and powers remained, in the hands of the royal lineage.

    Now, if Jesus were overtly shamanistic, he would not have been respected early on as a child questioning the rabbis in the synagogues. But he surely did shamanic things as his adult ministry evolved. The question is whether he was doing them as a shaman or as a King; was he eliciting these powers to be strictly a healer or as an equal to King Herod – his kingship being not of this world. Luke 17:20-21.

    1. Yep! That was part of the political argument. Herod finally “threw up his hands” so to speak and washed them of Jesus as scripture relates. Jesus was definitely complex and religious/political parties of the time did not know what to make of him. Jesus did not fit their agenda, so the crucifixion. The debate rages on even today amongst different schools of thought.

  3. I will certainly order that Pieter Caffert’s book today.

    I will be most interested in how Pieter Caffert differentiates what aHebrew prophet is (Isaiah, Jeremiah, Amos, etc.) and what a shaman is. Both certainly have these similar things attributed to them, but would a post Babylonian Captivity Hebrew consider their prophets to be or be like shamans?

    I am also interested in how he navigates the most common criticism of historical Jesus writers – that each makes Jesus into a pattern of behaviors and character that mirrors contemporary needs. Borg = Jesus the social rebel and liberation quester, for instance. Yes, for those who know me, that criticism is always on my mind as it is my own personal mission-theme. Perhaps forcing the historical Jesus into a new age “enlightened master” paradigm is a better example.

    I would also love to see how beginning with a Theology of Creation (certainly a post captivity Hebrew concept rather than beginning with soteriology as did the Pauline epistles and Reformation churches) is similar or different from traditional shamanism’s construction of metaphysics. The Hebrews were certainly not into plumbing the Nature of God as did the Greeks, but they did have a grounded and systematic way of looking at how a creator God acts in the life of creation. How does their understanding parallel to the shamans of the Middle East, North Africa, Turkey and Persia?

    I find the idea of Jesus the Shaman to resonate to some degree (it feels good in my gut) as long as we use equal meaning when discussing the terms (shaman, prophet, etc.). But I do so like to test issues thoroughly because not everything new is necessarily true in this era of post modern thinking.

  4. I have read all the posts and replies to the questions raised about Jesus of Nazareth. I have been thinking about what I might be able to contribute to this conversation, I know I would like to say something. I would like to start by saying how interesting to me the questions raised here are and what a great forum for discussing such a topic this webpage is.
    I was raised a Christian and I have struggled with the notion that my acceptance of Jesus as the one and only Son of God, that he died and rose for my sins, is a requirement for me to be able to go to heaven. I don’t believe that Jesus taught that and I would probably be kicked out of some of the groups I am in for saying that, but for me it is the truth. I believe that church doctrine fabricated that particular aspect to keep Christians from straying from the flock.
    That being said I still am in awe of the story of what Jesus did while he was alive on this Earth. There is no doubt in my mind that he was tapped into a higher force, a force that is available to us all, and a force that we have almost lost our connection too. When I am reminded of the path that Jesus walked, especially at Christmas time, tears always come to my eyes. That someone would knowingly walk a path to that would lead to such a miserable death and tell others before hand and still walk that path is proof enough for me of the great Love that Jesus felt in his heart.
    Was Jesus a shaman? The idea of Jesus as a shaman is not a Christian concept. Shamans are from indigenous peoples beliefs. I have no problem accepting Jesus as a shaman. He was definitely a teacher and a healer and he could foresee the future.
    Jesus preached a message of Love, and compassion for all things. Before him Siddhartha Gautama taught the same thing. I believe that salvation comes from within not from without. There is a path that one can walk that brings one closer to Heaven. It is a path that much be practiced and lived daily, and it is hard to adhere to in this modern world. Jesus taught that through him one could walk this path. I believe he meant that as a guide, we still have to walk this path ourselves.
    What an interesting topic of discussion. Thank you for asking such thought provoking questions. I appreciate the chance to contribute.

  5. I was raised outside the confines of any one religion. I was free to explore the ones available to me through my community and my friends. I sat through many a sermon, each in different teachings, but all based on faith. None of these resonated with my heart and my spirit. I wandered the woods asking my questions and seeking my answers. Today I still wander, seeking enlightenment, asking many of the same questions on this thread.

    I have often wondered, sometimes aloud, offending my peers, how we, as a society could not print an accurate account of world history for the last 100 years, yet we believe that one book written by the powerful to lead the masses, is the gospel. If Jesus lived, he did so at a time when education was not afforded to many. Knowledge and education was not delivered unto the people until after “the dark ages”. The dark ages where a period of time where knowledge was destroyed and long after Jesus was to have walked this earth. Yet we have this doctrine that so many proclaim has survived all of this and is the gospel.

    I do not wish to offend that which many place their faith in. I am simply voicing my perception on this matter. What I know about the time when Jesus would have walked the earth is also from books that have been through translation and editors. Yet we know that people were nomadic in that era. They lived off the land and worshiped the sun, prayed to the earth and danced for rain. To Will’s question, “Is it possible that Jesus knew to integrate earth and sky, masculine and feminine, immanence and transcendence?” yes, I believe it to be possible because that is all an uneducated man of that era knew. Perhaps it is in our ignorance that our earth wisdom lies.

    The nomadic, tribal people of this era knew the days were getting shorter, though they didn’t understand why. Every day the sun rose lower in the sky until one day it stopped. For three days, the sun does not sink lower in the horizon and does not rise higher. At the same time, in the night sky, rose the southern cross from the horizon. I believe this was a very religious and spiritual time for all people of all faiths. Everyone gathered to pray for the return of the light during this time. To an uneducated, nomadic, tribal people, the return, or resurrection of the sun would be a miracle as it was the return to life for their people.

    Even today, across the globe, we gather near the solstice to celebrate the light. We hang lights on our houses, we light up city streets, we light candles in our home. We welcome the return of the sun of god and all it’s (his) glory for we know that we can only have a bountiful harvest when it (he) returns.

    I do not subscribe to any one faith. I don’t believe we will ever know what Jesus did if he in fact walked the earth. I spend my days observing nature and people, learning all the time. What I learned most over the last forty years is at the foundation of all religion there appears to be core fundamentals that resonate the same. There have been Shaman’s and seers in each faith. Some immortal and some mortal. Some have been given names, others have been forgotten with the passage of time. I do not know if Jesus or Buddah walked this earth in their respective times. I do know that I celebrate the return of the sun and pray to the four directions that my family, my tribe, may have a bountiful harvest in the coming months.


  6. Ho All,

    I appreaciate the voices I hear in these responses. I too have been confused by my early teachings of Jesus in my Catholic upbringing. I do feel a closness to the Jesus I have come to feel in my heart: a teacher of love and acceptance. I’m interested in reading the perspective of Pieter Craffert. I always appreciate hearing the perspective of Dr. Will and Earthtribe loved ones. What I think I know is that Jesus was a spiritual man with a significant connection to the One which for me has largely come from my deep connections to the “Mother Tongue” of nature. Love to all.

  7. I don’t know who Jesus was. What I know of him is what has been written, rewritten, and edited more times than I really want to know. I don’t know what Jesus said. What I want to know is what my heart and others hearts say when I am calm or chaotic, happy or sad, in love or enraged, being truthful or lying my ass off.
    I don’t know what Jesus did. What I want to know what how my body moves to the words ” Abwoon d’bwashmaya , to the words ” I love you” or to the words ” I hate you”.
    I don’t know what miracles Jesus performed. What I want to know is what miracles are performed every day by my friends, my enemies, and those that I don’t care about.
    I don’t want to praise Jesus, I want to praise those that I love or hate, those I don’t give a damn about, those that are right or wrong, good or bad, and those that don’t give a damn about me.
    I’ve spent most of my early life wondering about, praying to, being ruled by, and spending many uncomfortable Sunday mornings being preached to about a person I didn’t know and frankly don’t care about anymore.
    I don’t mean to offend anyone, this one is all about me, but I think the time has come shift gears and see how my body moves to Abwoond d’bwashmaya.

  8. At midnight, I stood in my yard wishing Jesus “Happy Birthday”. It did not matter it most likely is not December 25. I lit a candle, burned Indian incense and sang the Pipe Song. The Buddha and representatives of Hinduism, Judaism, Islamism and all spiritual and religious practices were there too. I imagined intimacy and coherence as I painted the globe with love from my heart. I love Jesus and all the avatars and teachers who have braved criticism, ridicule and even death and those that still do. Thank you for opening the way for connections in many different forms and fashions. Puha, Pneuma, Ruha, Apu.

  9. Reading all this brings to me the memory of standing in a church in Copa Cabana Bolivia with our helmsman giving thanks for safe passage through a big storm on Lake Titicaca. Being impacted by the wall of flames lit by people’s faith and hope in Jesus and the Catholic church. The blend of Quero highland beliefs and Spanish Catholicism and my own beliefs in Natures’ Web of Life. Appreciating the moments where we human’s come together in all of our differences in inclusive ways. Now that is my Christmas Joy! One big, small world.

  10. I did go to the 11 o’clock service at Chapelwood Methodist and sang the old carols that I have always sung at Christmas. We lit the candles and sang silent night and then Joy to the World and I am still filled with wonder of a child at the beautiful story that has captivated me all of my life. Jesus as infant born in a manger to a virgin, son of God, Emmanuel–God with us. may the light of the Christ be with you all whether you are walking with him, dancing with,the Lord’s Prayer or sitting under a tree. happy holidays to all . thanks for thenmeaningful and honest discussion.

  11. Twenty-some years ago I attended a workshop dedicated to beginning to learn a Sufi dance to be danced to The Lord’s Prayer in Aramaic. We spent most of a day trying to learn the simple swooping dance movements associated with the first line, Abwoon d’bwashmaya, as well as learning to sing it. It occurs to me now that we were not actually trying to learn the movements as much as we were trying to learn how to surrender our bodies to the sound of the words so that the movement flowed from them. We were working on the premise of the Our Father, who art in Heaven translation, but I realize now that the movements feel more congruent with O Birther, Source, Mother-Father of the Universe.

  12. Jesus is part of the path that led me to a practice of nature-based spirituality. An aware relationship with Jesus began with a question I asked in second grade catechism class, Why do I need to pray to Jesus (and Mary) when I can pray directly to God? The question was not well received at the time, shutting down my seven-year-old outer voice, and opening my inner voice. I decided I would bundle Jesus and Mary into one direct line to God, despite what the nuns were teaching me. My heart said yes, my mind continued to question and doubt. My studies led me to understand Jesus did not preach in a confined space. He spoke from an open heart. This larger perspective did not fit well into the confines of a doctrine and a building. It took time for me to find the courage to make a change.

    Later, as a eucharistic minister in the church I could feel a flow of energy coming from somewhere outside the building we stood in, running through me to the persons I delivered communion to. It was a powerful surge that did not wish to be contained within the structure of the church. It was a moment of awakening, calling me outside the walls of the church, outside under the sun, moon, and stars, outside among the trees, water, rocks, winged ones and four-leggeds, outside where my feet touch the earth as I dance and my voice sings with the wind, outside around a sweat lodge fire held in the arms of a nature-based community where my body, mind, emotions and spirit have room to roam.

  13. What is it about Jesus that keeps many questioning – seeking? How does a historical Jesus scholar like Marcus Borg come to be able to attend traditional church services (complete with liturgy like the Nicene Creed) stating Jesus is his Lord and Savior? How does one pull truth from the gospels while still questioning how and by whom they were written? Reza Aslan, in his recent book, Zealot, casts doubt that Paul’s version of Jesus is an accurate representation. So then what do we do with this book called, The Bible? I am drawn to books about Jesus because my traditional source of Jesus knowledge – the organized church – is incomplete. Within reach on my bookshelf are:

    Rabbi Jesus
    Jesus a New Vision
    Jesus: Uncovering the Life, Teachings, and Relevance of a Religious Revolutionary
    Going Home: Jesus and Buddha as Brothers
    The Third Jesus: The Christ We Cannot Ignore
    Living Buddha, Living Christ
    Meeting Jesus Again for the First Time
    and just purchased but not yet read, Jesus the Human Face of God.

    I want desperately to find something to fill in the missing pieces – there’s a void in me longing to be filled with truth. I found myself sitting in church over 10 years ago wondering if Jesus were a dirty, fat, balding man would the people sitting in the pews still hold him in reverence – would they worship him? That Jesus is a “nature” man rings true. That Jesus is God? Then aren’t we all? And what is that? If Jesus is a shaman, what does that mean?
    So here it is Christmas Eve. The part of me that grew up loving to sing Christmas carols in a candlelit church is wishing it were somehow possible to return to a place of just going with the flow – sort of a blind acceptance – so that going to church would feel natural again. I have deep compassion for that part, AND I know too many questions remain unanswered for that to happen tonight. So, perhaps Jesus and I will go for a walk and then come home and bake some Christmas goodies. Love and blessings to you all.

    1. Thank you for this, Julie. I have most of these books, but I am glad to hear of the others. In your comments you remind me of the absolute awe my little child held on Christmas Eve when the midnight mass is held, the candles gleam, the songs of joy are sung, the baby is placed in the manger. Those moments stay with me as I mature into the questions and yet – there is still the wonder! There is love for this teacher, Rabbi Jesus, this shaman healer and mystic, as Allison calls him, the “Way Shower,” that Spirit raised up for the benefit of all who “see and hear” beneath the “tellings,” who “see and hear” with the heart the truth that was taught, the examples on how to live with compassion and awareness that were shown. I am so grateful William brought this discussion to the center.

  14. Abwoon d’bwashmaya.
    Our Father, who art in heaven…

    A recent Aramaic translation of this same phrase is startlingly different:
    O Birther, Source, Mother-Father of the Universe.

    The above phrase is so beautiful and speaks much to the Be-ing (verb/noun). All That Is, I have prayed with in recent decades. Upon reflecting on the discussions we have had over the past few days, I realize that Jesus becomes more and more the shaman, “Way Shower,” that is the expression of my spiritual journey. The fluidity of the Aramaic source : Abwoon d’bwashmaya. permits my spiritual life to have voice in the eco-field both inner and outer and creates an expansion for my spiritual concepts that is immense and does not limit Spirit just to words or actions or rigid concepts. That is so freeing to me as a small flicker in the creativity of the universe.

    1. Reginah Brown Dove WaterSpirit

      I don’t have much experience of Jesus except that I did have an experience of what I described to Bear Heart in a Native American Tipi Service as The Christ Light entering my body and that was without the ingestion of the sacrament, Peyote. I was born into a liberal Jewish family, albeit my mother loved Christian ideas, went to a “non-denomination” church and my father, raised in an Orthodox Jewish family turned to Science of Mind in later years. As a child we were told that Jesus was a great teacher.
      I tell you this to set the stage for understanding about my insights.
      When Will Taegel mentions Bear Heart’s name along side Einstein as being in communication with the Rock people it gets my attention. In 29 years of close proximity to Bear Heart I only heard him speak of the Rock people in the Inipi just as others had. Yet, I recognize that Will Star Heart’s comments are as valid as could be. It brings to mind something long forgotten. Eons ago I jokingly and somewhat disrespectfully use a knife to a piece of red meat at the dinner table with the grandchildren. Bear Heart went from levity to seriousness in a flash. He spoke words of how his people knew to treat the food from a living being as sacred. It was as if that piece of meat was still alive as he finished speaking.
      Reading the blog to the Earthtribe, I began to think of my journey from Beverly Hills, California to New Mexico 30 years ago. I thought about how I discovered that much of my depression was related to the time spent on cement in the city. New Mexico offered a chance to walk in the “dirt”. One of the happiest times was when we built a sweat lodge on a slight slope and the rains had us sitting in a foot of water in the middle of the prayers.
      The blog also has me thinking about how my parents moved from the Bronx, NY to semi rural California in 1945. My Dad called where we lived The Sticks. Then, my Mom had it in her mind to make sure all three offspring went to Beverly Hills High School. I am recounting and describing the pulls of different eco-fields. From there I travelled to several countries around the world feeling the most at home in Italy. Now that doesn’t seem a surprise knowing about my personal need for acceptance on an emotional level. Motto bene!
      I’ll skip to the present location. I live on a street, ironically called Hollywood Ave. in Old Town, Albuquerque. This street by standards in Beverly Hills, CA. would be considered quite unattractive. My rented adobe house has a fence with barbed wire on it. When I suggested to the owner that we take down the wire, he responded with “ It’s part of the charm and culture of the neighborhood, don’t you think?/” I have come to appreciate the barbed wire. There is an alley behind the house and over the fence is a McDonalds where I get my free WiFi. McDonalds is on Central Ave which is part of the famous ole 66 Highway. Some people feel entitled to drop their fast food trash practically at my back door. When the winds blow the trash is at my back door. Because I have learned to play with different interpretations of natural events I pick up the trash and hold that each piece I am able to put in the recycle bin is energy that needed to be let go of by the perpetrator in order for his/her spiritual growth. Whether it’s true or not it makes the task easier and affords me an opportunity to practice foregiveness.
      So, I started to think about how I got to this location from beautiful Beverly Hills and it occurred to me that being a conduit for balance has been a life time theme in my personal life. Has the land been helping me be what I like to be? Have I been listening to the Fields without being aware of my own tuned in-ness? Did I seek out to find a man like Bear Heart because I desperately needed to have a way to realize connections to other-than-humans as Will Taegel brought to my attention in The Mother Tongue? How brilliant is that? Not me but the Fields.
      In the Inipi I was taught to listen to the Rock people. Listen to their sizzling. Hear their council. I was also taught that the tiny sparks on the lava rocks when the herbs hit are the camp fires of the ancestors. Budda, Jesus, Moses, Allah, Mohammed? I wonder who kept the fire going? The door?
      I love you Rock people.
      Reginah WaterSpirit

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